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Internet of things explained

Through technology, the world is becoming more interconnected by the minute. We have access to various devices simultaneously from anywhere in the world. But how does this work? We at Cybernews Academy present you with a guide to the Internet of Things (IoT), the marvelous mechanism that helps us stay connected wherever we are.

What is IoT?

The Internet of Things is a network of physical devices, appliances, and other objects containing sensors and software that allow devices to communicate by collecting and sharing data. These devices, also known as smart objects, enhance interaction with the individuals who use them and other smart objects. You may own a few smart devices like smartwatches, smart TVs, and smart appliances. These devices can range in sophistication and may take the form of thermostats or larger industrial devices. The Internet of Things allows these smart devices to communicate with other Internet-enabled devices. Thus creating gateways through vast networks of interconnected devices that can transfer and exchange data.

History of IoT

One of the first examples of a network of smart devices was the 1982 modified Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University. This became the first ARPANET-connected appliance that could report on its inventory and the temperature of the beverages. There had been various ambiguous iterations of IoT during the 1980s. This concept was first proclaimed in 1985 in a speech by Peter T. Lewis. During this speech, Lewis explained that the “Internet of Things is the integration of people, processes, and technology with connectable devices and sensors to enable remorse monitoring status, manipulation, evaluation of trends of such devices.” It was only in 1999 that Kevin Ashton coined the term Internet of Things. At the time, Ashton believed radio-frequency identification (RFID) was integral to IoT. We now understand that these low-power chips are not the most effective. However, specific senor IoT chips are essential as they allow connections between devices and enable new communication between people and things.

How does IoT work?

An IoT system comprises sensors and devices communicating with the cloud through connectivity. This data will eventually reach the cloud and be processed and translated into an alert or automated action. The chain of IoT events goes something like this:

  • Devices and Things - IoT devices are appliances or things that have been granted computing capabilities. Some smart objects include Smart TVs, fridges, cars, and other equipment that has computer-like abilities. These devices collect data from users' inputs and patterns that are then communicated via the internet.
  • Delivery- This data is delivered to the cloud through cellular, satellite, WiFi, or Bluetooth connections.
  • Processing and translation- When this data reaches the cloud, specific software processes the information, providing an outcome translated for the end user. This information could be the temperature of a particular appliance or more advanced, like using techniques and tools to identify objects like pedestrians on the road.

Where is IoT used?

IoT is used almost everywhere, from smart devices to healthcare and medical services. The Internet of Things is essential for facilitating aid and providing assistive technology for various reasons.


A large number of IoT devices are manufactured for consumer use. These include cars, home automation, wearable devices like smartwatches, and exercise equipment. You will have at least one IoT device in your home or on your person, whether that’s a smart TV, a Fitbit, or even your smartphone, which is also considered an IoT device.


Home automation is becoming increasingly more common in the growing digital age. These appliances will control specific attributes of your home, such as lighting, heating, and air conditioning. This will help monitor your home environment and help you save money. Home automation is usually a system of hubs or platforms that manages smart devices or appliances. This could be a home automation kit accessed remotely via a device like your smartphone.

Medical and healthcare

The use of IoT devices in healthcare and medical fields has grown exponentially. There is even a term for the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), which refers to IoT devices used for medical purposes. These devices can be used for remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. IoT can be used to check a person's blood pressure or to monitor sophisticated medical equipment such as hearing aids and pacemakers. IoT sensors and devices can be used to care for elderly patients by using voice control or life-saving sensors that indicate whether someone has fallen in their home.

Many facets of industry and society utilize IoT devices and systems that help make work safe and efficient:

  • Manufacturing
  • Retail
  • Agriculture
  • Infrastructure
  • Military

What technologies are used in IoT?

There are a range of complex technologies used to power IoT. These technologies include machine learning, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and edge computing.

  • Cloud computing refers to the remote data storage used for IoT device management. The use of the cloud allows the data to be accessible on multiple devices within a network.
  • Machine learning is related to the software and algorithms that process the data from the cloud and determine what actions to execute from the information acquired.
  • Artificial intelligence is the automation of actions dependent on the information from the processed data. These can come in the shape of IoT security devices, including smart locks or access systems.
  • Edge computing is a storage and processing source for IoT devices' needs. According to Red Hat, “Edge computing allows IoT data to be gathered and processed at the edge, rather than sending the data back to the data center or cloud.” This technology enables a faster response time and increased operational efficiency.

Degree in IoT

There are many different avenues you can go down when thinking about getting into IoT professionally.

Consider a relevant degree in a Computer Science and Information Technology field:

  • Internet of Things
  • Computer Science
  • Information Technology
  • Computer Engineering

An IoT expert should have experience with various coding languages, big data, cloud computing, research, and the IoT ecosystem. Therefore, you should consider pursuing a computer science degree as this should give you a fundamental understanding of the main concepts related to IoT. From there, you could look into specializing in IoT post-graduation, as this will provide you with an in-depth knowledge of IoT.

Career in IoT

Many different types of professionals are required to help maintain the delicate balance and harmony of the IoT ecosystem. Machine learning engineers, IoT developers, UX/UI designers, cloud engineers, and data scientists are needed to help power the devices we use daily.

We have broken down a few responsibilities and requirements that are expected of an IoT developer:


  • Maintaining and managing code
  • Testing and deploying programs and systems
  • Managing and maintaining existing software
  • Working with developers to design algorithms
  • Verifying and deploying programs and systems


  • BSc/BA in Computer Science or any related field
  • Knowledge of languages C++, JavaScript, and Java
  • Experience with software design and development
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Attention to detail

The average salary for an IoT developer in the U.S. is anywhere from $88,000 to $148,000 annually.

The Internet of Things spans further than any of us can fathom. IoT devices are everywhere in our homes, hospitals, workplaces, and most facets of modern-day society. We at Cybernews Academy have researched the depth and breadth of IoT, how it works, and how you could pursue a career in IoT. The Internet of Things works meticulously to communicate between devices, things, and people to ensure we are protected, comfortable, and secure. These brilliant IoT devices can be used in various ways – from elderly care to maintenance of agriculture. The world of IoT is incredibly vast and intricate. IoT professionals, machine learning engineers, and developers maintain the delicate balance within the IoT ecosystem and ensure that all our devices continue to serve us as they should.